no one country has monopoly over. off the unraveling of their country they put all the blame on Pakistan Pakistan Affairs Notes By Shakeel Pakistan Studies Topic Advent of Islam in the Sub-Continent The last Prophet of Islam, Prophet Muhammad (SAW), completely changed the intellectual. Pakistan Studies Complete Notes (Question Answer Format) - Free ebook download as Word Doc .doc /.docx), PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book .

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This course of Pakistan Studies — which is a multi-disciplinary subject – been designed for the students of Grades IX and X, with a view to enable them not only . The ideology of Pakistan stemmed from the instinct of the Muslim community of The Two-Nation Theory served as the basis of demand for Pakistan by the. The National Curriculum Revision Committee for Pakistan Studies in its . Lahore from June , , to finalize the curriculum of Pakistan Studies 4.

They suffered heavy casualties in this battle and lost all their ambitions of ruling the Empire. How did invasions weaken the Mughal Empire? The invasions drained the Mughal Empire and destroyed its prestige.

The famous peacock throne of Mughals was taken away by Nadir Shah. Who was Ahmed Shah Abdali? He was also known as Ahmed Shah Durrani due to his leadership and military skills. His military skills achieved the victory over Marathas in the 3rd Battle of Paniput.

He had to turn back because of the mutiny of his followers instead of capturing the empire. What did Shah Wali Ullah believe about the role of Islam?

Shah WaliUllah believed that Islam should direct every aspect of life, political, social and economical behaviour should be guided by Islamic values. He believed that Muslims can not be successful if they departed from the principles of their religion. He believed Islamic values of Justice and equilibrium must be followed. He emphasized on putting an end to cast and sect system and follow the teaching of brotherhood Islam to achieve success.

Who was ShahWaliUllah?

He journeyed to Saudi Arabiya in and lived their till ; thewre he got educated under Shiekh Abu Tahir, a renowned religious scholar. He was a religious man who inspired Muslims to rise and follow the teachings of their religion. He gained many disicples as well as many criticizers in the course of his work.

He translated Quran first time in Persian in the Indian subcontinent. What were the achievements of Shah Wali Ullah?

He gave Muslims an Identity.

Punjab Boards 10th Class Pak Studies English Medium Book In PDF Download

He made the Muslims realize their mistakes and successfully united them. Who was Syed Ahmed Shaheed Barelvi? He disliked British rule. He struggled hard to finish Sikh rule in Punjab and died fighting for Muslims in the battle of Balakot in What was the Jihadi Movement? It was purpose was to free Muslims from Sikh and British Rule.

It aimed to organize the Muslims and think about betterment. The Sikhs under Ranjit Singh were a very powerful and superior force. The Muslims were divided and reluctant to work unitedly. The locals of Balakot and his own forces disagreed over the taxes he laid upon them. There was a lack of support. What was the Faraizi Movement? The Faraizi movement was the movement started by Haji Shariat Ulla in East Bengal The Faraizi movement was started to organize Muslims by making them punctual in following their Faraiz.

It aimed to protect the rights of poor Muslim farmers in East Bengal. Its followers were known as Faraizis who grew greatly in number as the movement grew in popularity. Ther Fairaizi movement was very successful until an alrmaed British put an end to it recognising it as an opposition against them. Who was Haji Sharait Ullah?

He was a reformer and religious sxholar. He was born in in Faridpur District. He was the founder of the Fraiazi movement which aimed to organize muslims and protect their rights. Who was Titu Mir? Titu Mir was a disciple of Syed Ahmed Shaheed.

He was a man of action. He was from West Bengal where he tried to protect rights of farmer and free them from tyranny of Hindu zamindars. He made his base at Nalkerbaria, where he built a Bamboo Fort out of the Bamboo stick for his army.

He was killed in battle in What was the East India Company? Its first port was set up at Surat. The East India Company gained power and created a private army. It made a major role in establishing British Reign in the subcontinent. What was the Reason for British Interest to trade with India?

The British wanted to use and take control over the major trade routes to control World Trade and they all passed through the subcontinent. The British wanted to eliminate all other countries from competitions.

The British wanted to trade for its economic growth.. What effect did British Have on Indians? The British caused a change in Indian culture. The British caused the increase in resentment and misery in the Indians.

The British changed the religion of people and the laws they were following. Who was Robert Clive? Clive is considered as the founder of British rule in the subcontinent. He was victorious leader in Battle of Plassey against Nawab of Bengal. He became the Governor of Bengal and was later convicted of corruption.

He commited suicide at the age of 49 due to addiction to opium and destruction of prestige. What was the Doctrine of Lapse?

It stated that any ruler who does not have any male heir will have his land taken in British possession after his death. The land of Jhansi suffered from this law. The Doctrine caused a lot of resentment and played a major role in the British Expantion in the subcontinent. What were the Subsidiary Alliances? The Subsidiary Alliances were another tool in the British expansionism introduced by Lord Wellesley in These Alliances were formed between the ruler of a state and the British.

According to them, the ruler was given British protection while the state was controlled by the British in actual. Many states fell prey to them and due to them British were able to take over a vast area of land in the Subcontinent. The State of Hyderabad was the first to form this alliance.

What was the Pitts India Act ? This introduced a Governor General to oversee the business in India. Introduced a Board of Control which was to decide all political matters in India and appoint any Senior Officer there. This Act was the sign that British Government was not ready to loose India and because the Company was going bankrupt so from stopping its corruption to strengthen its hold over India this Act was passed.

Why was the India Act passed? The East India Company was going Bankrupt. To Try the corrupt officials and remove them. To save the company from falling. To strengthen hold over Indian land and trade as now the parliament had started to show keen interest in it.

What were the reasons for the fall of East India Company? The company became bankrupt. It lost its monopoly. Other companies wanted to share the Indian trading monopoly.

British government achieved its purpose of capturing the subcontinent by blaming EIC of War of Independence. How did the British treat the lands they had taken control of? They tried to westernize different lands. They took complete hold over the major cities and states like Punjab. Obedient rulers were placed over smaller states.

Pakistan Studies Compiled by: Hafiz Ashfaq Ahmad

Some lands were taken from the rulers as hey were thought to be inefficient. Briish tried its best to get maximum benefit from the lands they taken over. What did British do about religion in Subcontinent?

They first try to adopt nuetrility. Later they allowed Christian Missioaries to enter India to spread Christianity. The Entry of Christian Missionaries strengthened the beliefs of British and they started to belief themselves as superior. The British and Christian missionaries became intolerant of Indian Values. Very few people changed their religion. What was the result of Indian Uprising in ? Relations between Indian and British worsened. Muslims simply refused to cooperate due to harsh treatment of British.

The British presence was not accepted by overwhelming majority. How did rebellion affect British? It cost them a great deal of money. It shocked the British.

They realized that Indians had to be given some rights. They became harsh towards the Indians. Who was Warren Hastings? He was the First Governor General of Bengal. Previously he had worked with the East India Company and risen through the ranks. He took bribes in organizing these ventures and had to return to Britain facing charges of corruption.

He was cleared in the end but his reputation was ruined. How did introduction of Railway system played an important role in India? The Railway played an important role as it was used to transfer army effectively throughout India. The Railway opened for public and became the main public transport to different cities. It played an important role in British Victory in the War of Independence for troops were quickly transferred from one place to another to put down rebellion.

It was important in communication because telegraph line was laid along railway line for sending instant messages. Why was British annexation over Sindh was considered a shameful British Act?

British pride was hurt so to restore its pride it attacked Sindh. British wanted to show Muslims they were Still powerful.

British broke a Friendship treaty with rulers of Sindh. The British people considered it a wrong act in Britain. What was the Suez Canal Dispute?

The Egypt decided to nationalize the use of this canal. British and French started War over the Canal as they wanted to capture the Empire.

British captured the Canal.

Pakistan Studies Complete Notes (Question Answer Format)

What was the Black Hole Incident? The Incident in which many British people died. Nawab Siraj captured Fort William of Calcutta. He captured British residents and locked them in small room. The British was angered and this led to Battle of Plassey. Who was Sir Syed Ahmed. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was a thinker, philosopher , reformer and statesman. He was bon in Delhi in He tried to improve relations of British with Muslims after War of Independence through pamphalets and speeches.

He gave the two nation theory which became the basis of Muslim demand and the integral part of Pakistan Movement. Muslims were in poor condition without any jobs and were given harsh treatment. He wrote the Loyal Mohammadans of India to highlight the work of those who sided the British. He gave message to Muslimas that they should adopt good habits of british but discard their bad ones and should cooperate with them to get benefits.

What was the Aligarh Movement? Sir Syed visited Oxford and Cambridge in and impressed by their system of education he decided to implement in India aswell. He was thus able to form the MAO College.

Through this movement he tried to educate Muslims about Science and English language so that communication with British becomes easy. He tried to educate Muslims in the European Style. What was the Two Nation Theory?

He demanded that As separate Nation Muslims should have Separate Electorate system in a democratic election. He believed that if elections happen in a democratic style then Hindus would be dominant and this would lead to violence.

He suggested that due to the great differences between Hindus and Muslims in every field of life, they should be given different treatment. What is Punjabi language? It is the main language of Punjab Province. It is statistically spoken more than Urdu.

Hafiz Barkhurdar has been the first person around AD to use the language by this name. Punjabi is written in the same script as Arabic. How has the Punjabi Language been promoted? Books in wide variety of Acedemic Subject have been published in Punjabi. Punjabi has been used in the writing style of contemporary age. Punjabi films have been made and it is popular language in theatres and radio. What is Sindhi? How has Sindhi been promoted?


What is Balochi? This is the language spoken in Baluchistan province. Balochi literature is small but rich in folk tales passed on word of tongue. Balochi literature at the earliest has been reorded as famous folk songs specially of Jam Darang. How has Balochi been promoted? Balochi has seen little development. Radio Pakistan Karachi broadcasts in Balochi. Balochi Literary Ascociation was set up to publish magazines and Balochi literature.

Balochi folk tales have been brought down in writing. Quetta Television Studio Broadcasts in Balochi. What is Pashto? Pashto is the main language of Northern regions and most tribes of NWFP though with different dialects. Its first book on Sufism is Khair-ul-Biyan. It has recorded famous poets like Amir Khan and Bayazaid Ansari. Pashto literature achieved its peak in Mughal period and the songs developed the theme of nationalism. The British Rule Period is considered its Golden Age when very high quality writing was produced during this time.

Pashto literature played an important role in British Opposition to achieve independence. How has Pashto been promoted? Peshawar University was established. Academy to promote Pahto literature was set up. What is the importance of Urdu language? Urdu was the main language of Mughal court after Aurangzeb. Urdu was the language of Muslims of India. It is the language which played a very important role in the Pakistan Movement. Most of the documents and letters had been written in Urdu.

Urdu was spoken by a large number of people. The Urdu-Hindi controversy was the one of the main reason that Muslims wanted a separate homeland. Urdu has a very rich literature stock. What was the Urdu Hindi Controversy? Hindu wanted Hindi to be the official language while Muslim wanted Urdu as the official language.

The Hindu started campaigns against Urdu. Muslims thought that Hindus are trying to destroy their identity by trying to harm Urdu. Muslims wanted a separate homeland because their language was in danger. Muslims were horrified when Hindi was made the official alongside English and Urdu. Muslims could not let harm come to Urdu which was very close to Persian and Arabic.

THE Pakistan Movement 1. What was the Morley-Minto Reforms? Famous as the Indian Council Act. Muslim Representation was to be elected by separate electorate. What were Montague Chelmsford Reforms.

What was the Rowlatt Act? It was a parliamentary Party. Its purpose was to use the legislative bodies formed under Montague Chelmsford reforms to work for the betterment of India from within. Jinnah also joined this party. What was the Hijrat Movement? Only certain questions will be answered in this part for Pakistan Movement. What was the Nehru Report? Who was Chudhary Rehmat Ali?

He suggested for the separate homeland long before anyone thought of partition. He suggested the name Pakistan for the new nation. He studies law at University of Punjab.

He went to Cambridge University for further studies. Published Now or Never. Died in and Is buried in Cambridge. Who was Dr. Allam Iqbal? He is the national poet of Pakistan. He studied and earned degree in philosophy from Cambridge and Punjab University.

He was knighted by Britain for his famous poetry. He was the first to dream of a separate place for Muslims where they can live with pure Islamic values. What were the round table conferences. What was Bande Mataram Scheme? What were the Wardha Schemes? Why was Day of Deliverance celebrated? What was the August Offer? Lord Linlithgow made an offer to the Indians in It Increased representation in Executive Council of Indians It also gave them the right to frame their own constitution after war.

What was the Pakistan Resolution? It was passed out in on the annual session of Muslim League. In it the Muslims demanded a separate homeland. All Muslim dominant Areas were asked to be united into one unit. What was the Cripps Mission? What was the Quit India Movement? What were the Gandhi Jinnah Talks? The two leaders had conversations between each other for the future of India. They met 13 times and exchanged 21 letters between 8 to 27 September Gandhi wanted power in hands oof Federal Government while Quid demanded provincial autonomy.

Gandhi refused two nation theory idea and asked for partition later and independence first while Jinnah was on opposite ideas.

What was the Cabinet Mission? What was the 3 June Plan? Who was Lord Mountbatten? He was the great grandson of Queen Victoria. At age of 16 he joined Royal Navy and earned distinction in qualities.


He became respected person in the world so was appointed Viceroy over subcontinent. He was murdered inn by Irish Republican Army. What was the Boundary Commision? It was a commission set up to divide the boundaries for Pakistan and India. It was head by Sir Redcliffe and Mount batten participated vastly in the division of boundaries.

Unfair Boundary distribution like major Muslim Cities of Gurdaspur. India got a way to enter Kashmir because of the path made up by the commission for Hindus. Why steps did Pakistan take to solve the refugee problem? Collected aid from the Pakistanis living in well conditions. Quid-E-Azam relief fund was established. Made temporary shelter, gave medicines and training was given on government work. What was the Canal Water Dispute? The dispute was solved by International Court of Justice in which water of 3 rivers was given to Pakistan.

Further more help and contract for building of 2 dams and some canals was also given. What was the Kashmir Issue? Pakistani forces also attacked. Both armies captured as much as they could until UN put a ceasefire in The state of Indian Controlled Kashmir was declared disputed.

A plebiscite has to held to solve this problem. Who was Liaqat Ali Khan? He was declared as the first Governor General. Controlling a state like Pakistan in was a very hard job and he treied best to solve the problems specially constitution problem. He was murdered in in what is now known as the Liaquat Bagh.

What was the One Unit Policy? A policy annulled by General Yahya which grouped the 4 provinces were marged into one unit. This was done to make administration more central and effective. To make devising a constitution easier. It was done to remove ethnic differences.

The measure was not welcomed by the different people beacause of the deep differences. Who was General Ayub Khan? Born in NWFP in He was educated at Aligarh College.

Later at Sandhurst, a British College for training Army officials. Fought against Japanese in WW 2. In he became the First Pakistani Commander in chief. Was the first army chief to declare Martial law in Pakistan. What was the Basic Democracies?

Ayub Khan introduced the Basic Democracy System. Political Parties were not allowed. They were to vote weather Ayub should remain President or not. Why was Islamabad chosen as capital? It had a better climate. To keep Officials away from Commercial influences. Was a site north of Rawalpindi. A lot of money was spread on the new Capiital.

What was the 6 point Programme. They were as a way suggestions suggesting that West Pakistan should have its own arm and currency. Furthermore each half should keep its own revenue.

Federal and Foreign affairs of each half should be controlled by separate governments in each half. Infact these were Points suggesting the two units to be totally different in all but name. What was the Simla Accord? This was an agreement signed between Bhutto and Indira Gandhi after War.

In it release of the troops of Pakistan and returning the captured land of Lahore. Pakistan made no consessions over Kashmir. Both contries agreed to have peaceful relations. The Accord formed Bhutto as national hero. Who was Shiekh Mujib? Born in , he was a strong believer of Self Government for East-Pakistan. He was the founder of Awami League. He was successful in winning elections and uprising Bengalis against Pakistan.

He was murdered in a military takeover on August Who was Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto? Born in , he was a brilliant politition. Served as Minister of Commerce in Served as Minister of Foreign Affairs in Served as President and then Prime Minister from Graduated in law from California and Oxford Universities. He was hanged by General Zia in after being convicted to a murder.

Who was General Zia? He was the Chief of Army set up by Bhutto. He removed Bhutto from the office by declaring Martial Law on country and charged him of murder. He became President of Pakistan from to He adopted a strict policy of Islamization in the country. He became famous in the World specially due to the Afghan Miracle.

He died in plane crash on 17th August What was th u2 crises? U2 was the American Spy plane launched from Pakistan air base of Peshawar. It was spying on Russia and shot down. Gary Powers the pilot was arrested and found guilty of spying after photos were discovered.

Russia threatened Pakistan that they will attack on the country.

Relations with America also deteriorated. What was RCD? It stands for the Regional Cooperation Development. In it was set up by Pakistan, Turkey, Iran and Iraq. Its purpose was to increase economic, educational and cultural link between these Muslim countries. It was more successful in cultural an educational sector than trade and came to an end in It stands for Central Asia Treaty Organization.

It was also called the Baghdad Pact. What was the Pacca Qila Massacre? On his way the governor of Makran, who provided him with additional forces, joined him.

Also, a good number of Jats and Meds, who had suffered at the hands of native rulers, joined the Arab forces. Muhammad bin Qasim first captured Daibul. He then turned towards Nirun, near modern Hyderabad, where he easily overwhelmed the inhabitants.

Dahir decided to oppose the Arabs at Raor. After a fierce struggle, Dahir was overpowered and killed. Raor fell into the hands of the Muslims. The Arab forces then occupied Alor and proceeded towards Multan. Along the way, the Sikka Uch fortress, situated on the bank of the Ravi, was also occupied.

The Hindu ruler of Multan offered resistance for two months after which the Hindus were overpowered and defeated. Prior to this, Muhammad bin Qasim had taken Brahmanabad and a few other important towns of Sindh.

Muhammad bin Qasim was planning to proceed forward when the new Caliph Suleman bin Abdul Malik recalled him. After the departure of Muhammad bin Qasim, different Muslim generals declared their independence at different areas. The Muslim conquest of Sindh brought peace and prosperity to the region. Law and order was restored. The sea pirates of Sindh, who were protected by Raja Dahir, were crushed.

As a result of this, sea trade flourished. The port of Daibul became a very busy and prosperous commercial center. When Muhammad bin Qasim conquered Sindh, the local people, who had been living a life of misery, breathed a sigh of relief. Qasim followed a lenient policy and treated the local population generously.

Everyone had full religious freedom and even the spiritual leaders of local religions were given salaries from the government fund. No changes were made in the local administration and local people were allowed to hold offices - particularly in the revenue department.

All taxes were abolished and Jazia was imposed. Everyone was treated equally. Poor people, especially Buddhists, were very impressed by his policies and many of them embraced Islam.

A number of Mosques and Madrasas were constructed in important towns. In a short period of time Sindh became a center of Islamic learning. A number of religious scholars, writers and poets were emerged and they spread their knowledge.

The Muslims learned Indian sciences like medicine, astronomy and mathematics. Sanskrit books on various subjects were translated into Arabic. During the reign of Haroon al Rasheed, a number of Hindu scholars were even invited to Baghdad. The establishment of Muslim rule also paved way for future propagation of Islam in Sindh and the adjoining regions. Later Sindh also attracted Ismaili missionaries who were so successful that Sindh passed under Ismaili rule.

With the conquest of Lahore by Mahmud of Ghazni, missionary activity began again under the aegis of Sufis who were the main agents in the Islamization of the entire region. Sufis and the Spread of Islam The spread of Islam in the Sub-continent is the story of untiring efforts of numerous saints and Sufis who dedicated their lives to the cause of service to humanity. By the time the Muslim Empire was established at Delhi, Sufi fraternities had come into being and the Sufi influence was far more powerful than it was in earlier days under the Arabs in Sindh.

The two great fraternities that established themselves very early in Muslim India were the Suhrawardiyah and the Chishtiyah. With Multan as its center the Silsilah became dominant in the areas that now constitute Pakistan. He settled in Ajmer. Because he established the first Sufi Silsilah in the Indian sub-continent, he is often referred to as Hind-al-Wali.

The Chishtiyah order remained the most popular order during the Sultanate period. He is mainly responsible for the propagation of Islam in Punjab. The disciple of Sheikh Baha-ud-din Zakariya, Syed Jalal- ud-din Bukhari, popularly known as Mukhdum Jahanian Jahangasht, was one of the most important saints of the Suhrawardiyah order.

He played an important part in the propagation of Islam in Sindh. Shah Jalal came from Turkey and was a great Suhrawardi saint of Bengal.Maulana Qasim and his companions actively fought against the British and for some time set up their own government in their own area.

Russia threatened Pakistan that they will attack on the country. Visit of Ayub Khan. This thing is necessary for an exemplary society. The Hindu landlords, capitalists and traders did not like the partition as it was to put an end to their exploitation of the poor Muslims.

Thus, in order to free the prisoners and to punish the guilty party, Hajjaj decided to undertake a huge offensive against Dahir, who was patronizing the pirates. It was his belief to stand against the Oppressors Rule.

He tried to control moral behavior of people through a strict rule. Cancellation of Partition of Bengal The vigorous Hindu agitation rocked the Government which could not withstand the extreme pressure of the movement.

The Asia Foundation , for example, has launched specific projects for a diverse understanding of the subject through actions on local governance, civil society, human rights, and healthcare [7] as well as political, economic, judicial , and foreign relations.