Meditations on violence: a comparison of martial arts training & real world violence / Rory Miller. -- 1st ed. -- Boston, Mass.: YMAA. Publication Center, c Editorial Reviews. Review. "A must read book for LEO's, Martial Artists highly recommend! A Comparison of Martial Arts Training & Real-World Violence. Meditations on Violence: A Comparison of Martial Arts Training & Real World beginning of a typical martial arts book, but then again real-life violence is not a.
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Sgt. Rory Miller Meditations On Violence; A Comparison Of Martial Arts Training & Real World Violence. Topics Sgt Rory Miller, Self Defense. Publication date: April Digital Book format: PDF (DRM-Free). Rating star 2 users rated this ebook - write a review of Meditations on Violence. World Violence free pdf, Download Meditations On Violence A Comparison Of Martial. Arts Training And Real World Violence Pdf, Read Online Meditations On .
Effects of Transcendental Meditation TM on the mental health of industrial workers. Japanese Journal of Industrial Health. Management of depression in general practice. British Medical Journal. Differential effects of relaxation techniques on trait anxiety: A meta-analysis.
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Find more of Carolyn's hymns at www. The New Century Hymnal, Verses Peace Prayer Tune: Siyahamba South African tune ; Text: By the Waters of Babylon: These monographs are valuable tools that support churches in creating faithful and effective ministries on specific peace and justice issues, answering questions they may have on the issues and providing resources and contacts for seeking additional information. Jones' book. However, certain other aspects deserve greater attention in so much as they are central to understanding and eradicating this problem, one of which is symbolic violence Bourdieu, , , This form of violence is of particular interest in so far as does not entail a clear manifestation of harm or threat to a particular subject, but rather a complex symbolic and cultural order of domination that sustains and reproduces other more direct forms of violence.
Furthermore, given its invisible nature, symbolic violence tends to receive less attention than other types of violence, both in terms of research and interventions designed to prevent violence Pedersen, ; Samuel, Although subtle and inconspicuous, symbolic violence shapes social relations and reproduces behavioral dispositions and forms of social representation.
It is equally important to study the processes underlying violence and discrimination against LGBT people in educational settings, particularly higher education.
Moreover, Bourdieu and Passeron argue that this space acts as an apparatus that reproduces the dominant symbolic order of the society to which it belongs. On the other hand, while educational institutions play a key role in reproducing the dominant culture, they are also particularly well placed to develop critical reflexivity and promote the transformation of cultural practices.
However, the main focus of attention has been violence committed by men against women and violence against the LGBT community and symbolic violence as a mechanism of domination embedded in the social order remain neglected. Here language is understood not only as a means of communication between speakers and listeners, but also, and above all, as a set of practices that structure and organize social life.
This approach therefore allows one to question what Bourdieu calls doxa , a deep-founded set of values, knowledge and beliefs that are considered by the status quo as inherently true and necessary for social functioning; so much so that they generate a submissive and habitual acceptance, even when this involves the maintenance of objective relations of domination. Thus, the discursive practices of students and professors as the main actors in these spaces are central to understanding these forms of power and domination.
Studies addressing LGBT issues are rare and university regulations applying to the recognition and protection of the rights of LGBT people are incipient and lack specificness. In light of the above, this qualitative study explores forms of symbolic violence against LGBT people committed through the discourse of students and professors in university settings, focusing on a university in Mexico. This study was conducted in a public university in Mexico with approximately The study sample was generated using purposive sampling methods, whereby participants are selected because they occupy a defined position in a structure or social order and so have a distinct perspective to offer in relation to the study objective.
Homogeneity of group composition facilitates symmetrical relationships between participants and thus effective conversation and freedom of expression. Furthermore, it allows the researcher to take into account discursive positioning specific to a group constituted as a collective subject.
The following homogeneity criteria were taken into account: The sample also met the following heterogeneity criteria: The sample was composed of four groups: Group 1 - male students self-identified as heterosexual ; Group 2 - female students self-identified as heterosexual ; Group 3 - professors whose sexual orientation was not explicitly manifested ; and Group 4 - male and female students openly self-identified as members of the LGBT community. In accordance with the heterogeneity criteria, the participants came from various areas of knowledge, including the social sciences and humanities, health sciences, engineering, and basic sciences, including 14 educational programs nursing, social work, civil engineering, telematics, dance, pedagogy, foreign languages, and architecture and design, among others.
Therefore, discussion groups provide a space where the types of interactions that are dominant in the context in question are reproduced on a controlled scale. The discussion groups were conducted using a moderator guide designed around three basic themes: In accordance with the adopted method, the groups were encouraged to engage in spontaneous conversation without strict adherence to the guide.
Participants were recruited after making observations and conducting interviews with key informants, such as the coordinators of educational centers, with a view to identifying potential participants. Candidates were contacted by telephone to explain the study objectives and invite them to participate. Each group discussion was moderated by a member of the research team and lasted for between 40 and 90 minutes. The sessions were recorded with the consent of the participants and transcribed orthographically.
Data analysis. The transcriptions were analyzed to identify discursive practices revealing discrimination and symbolic violence against the LGBT community in the context in question.
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This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the School of Psychology of the University of Colima, where the first author is affiliated. The study was also conducted in accordance with the Code of Good Research Practice of the Autonomous University of Barcelona, to which the second author is affiliated.
This code requires researchers to obtain informed consent and guarantee confidentiality and that the participants will not be exposed to risk during the investigation. Each discursive strategy in turn reveals particular social and discursive elements, such as stereotypes, prejudice, rhetorical strategies and ways of constructing subjects, which contribute to the maintenance of certain patterns of everyday interaction with the university LGBT community.
The first discursive strategy, which is particularly common among students, is a phenomenon commonly known as carrilla, a popular term used in Mexico, especially in informal interactions between young people, to a refer to a practice whereby one or various individuals are the constant brunt of jokes and mockery made by a group in the same social setting.
This practice maintains forms of interaction that draw attention to, repudiate or belittle certain attitudes or behaviors adopted by those on the receiving end, without openly acknowledging that they are offensive.
By disguising these actions as a joke or playing, the intimidation and harassment that this practice entails are excused and these acts are understood as a socially acceptable and supposedly harmless form of interaction. The student discussion groups showed that carrilla is a typical form of interaction within the various educational centers and that it is more commonly directed at people that stray from the stereotypical notion of masculinity and femininity. The following excerpt extracted from the female student group illustrates this practice:.
I reckon that ninety percent of the school are gay. We used to make fun of him: It is interesting to note in the above utterance how the student characterizes the majority of her male colleagues as gay and refers to carrilla as a common code of interaction that she follows. This discursive practice contributes to the policing and reinforcement of heteronormative culture in educational settings, especially in those areas of knowledge strongly associated with stereotyped gender views.
On the contrary: The following extract from the LGBT group, a student who self-identifies as gay and openly expresses his sexual orientation, illustrates how he became the target of this practice:. You can imagine: Well, they made so much fun of me. And I already knew that would happen.
It was like. I might have changed a bit, but I still talk the same. This utterance illustrates other interesting aspects. Firstly, it shows an openly gay male student who participates in a stereotypically masculine social space football , to which he admits he does not belong.
Collins - Violence: A Micro-Sociological Theory
At the same time, the statement characterizes carrilla and mockery in such a setting as expected and natural: Thus, as a discursive phenomenon, carrilla is shown to play an important role as a mechanism of social pressure. This practice seeks to strengthen conformity in those at the receiving end in relation to group expectations and exposes and sanctions behaviors that do not live up to these expectations.
Moreover, these acts are frequently seen by those on the receiving end as expected, acceptable and even fun. In short, they act as discursive vehicles through which heteronormative symbolic order is exercised, counting on the consent of both dominant and dominated subjects.
However, possibilities of questioning these normative practices can be observed, albeit to a lesser extent, in the discourse of the students and professors. This is shown in the following utterance made by a male student belonging to LGBT group:.
I believe that to some extent we give others a certain amount of power to offend us. Until the penny dropped and I thought: And someone might say: Is being mocked for being gay funny?
Without doubt, the presence of these discourses demonstrates the achievements made in a historic struggle for the recognition of the rights of groups persecuted because of their sexual orientation and gender identity. Frequently, these terms have been incorporated into the official rhetoric of institutions. The recurrent and heterogeneous use of this notion allows the subjects to define their personal position and engage in various actions to define and contrast the situations discussed.
A point in question in relation to the use of this term is when participants say they respect the different sexual orientations and practices of their peers and colleagues, as in the case of the following utterance made by a student in the LGBT group: I think everyone has their own tastes, right?
And that is respected. And, like, in general [homosexual people] are usually. Only that there are certain types of people that sometimes want to. This discursive function was clearly observed in the same discussion group when another male student, referring to gay men, stated the following: The following utterance shows a similar stance: Another use of the notion of respect frequently adopted by the LGBT community was also identified.
I gave my girlfriend a kiss at school and suddenly an administrative assistant appeared and said: And I said to him: And I could see heterosexual people around me kissing. And it was an ordinary kiss, tender if you like. And it was like: Demonstrations of affection between people of the same sex are censured and can be understood as lack of respect even by those who demonstrate the affection.
The above extract illustrates an argumentative turn:In section one, Sgt. Dico menandri eum an, accusam salutandi et cum, virtute insolens platonem id nec. We love using Calm to set the tone for the day!
Castro, R. And someone might say: What does it mean to learn in a relationship? Reproduction in education, society and culture Vol. In that relationship, which is the mirror in which we can see ourselves, we can discover what we are, our reactions, our prejudices, our fears, depression, anxieties, loneliness, sorrow, pain, grief.
Journal of Counseling and Development.
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